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Bringing clarity and focus to the research question: the role of estimands


Find out more about estimands and how deploying this approach will improve the quality of clinical research.

The International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guideline E9 Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials was issued in 1998 and in November 2019 an addendum to ICH E9 (R1) was issued relating to estimands and sensitivity analyses. This Whitepaper outlines the basics of estimands, and discusses their proposed deployment for improving the quality of clinical research.